Scholarship for Approaching the Interpretation of Early 19th Century Maroon Gulf Coast Florida

Jackson and Brown 2005 Baram 2014 Howard 2002 Weik 2002Millett 2013

Scholarship for 
Approaching the Interpretation of Early 19th Century Maroon Gulf Coast Florida

Created for the 2015-16 Florida Humanities Council funded Tragedy and Survival: 
Bicentennial of the Southward Movement of Black Seminoles on Florida’s Gulf Coast
Uzi Baram, Principal Investigator

Please note: This bibliography focuses on the history and materiality for maroons in Florida during 1770s-1821. The list includes other relevant scholarship but does not include Fort Mosé or publications focused on the Second Seminole War and its aftermath. Nor does it include publications focused primarily on the Seminoles and Indigenous history for Florida.

Agorsah, E. Kofi 1994 Background to Maroon Heritage. In Maroon Heritage: Archaeological, Ethnographic and Historical Perspectives, edited by E. Kofi Agorsah, pp. 1-35. Canoe Press, The University of the West Indies, Kingston.

Aptheker, Herbert 1973 Maroons within the Present Limits of the United States. In Maroon Societies: Rebel Slave Communities in the Americas, edited by Richard Price, pp. 151-167. Anchor Books, Garden City. Originally published in 1939 Journal of Negro History 24:167-184.

Baram, Uzi 2008 A Haven from Slavery on Florida's Gulf Coast: Looking for Evidence of Angola on the Manatee River. African Diaspora Archaeology Network Newsletter June 2008. Available at

Baram, Uzi 2012 Cosmopolitan Meanings of Old Spanish Fields: Historical Archaeology of a Maroon Community in Southwest Florida. Historical Archaeology 46(1):108-122.

Baram, Uzi 2013 Partners in Search of History. Time Sifters Archaeological Society Newsletter. October

Baram, Uzi 2014 The Historical Archaeology of Looking for Angola at 8Ma103: Excavations and Public Outreach by the Manatee Mineral Spring, Manatee County, Florida. Report on the Public Anthropology Program Looking for Angola as an Update to 8Ma103, prepared for Reflections of Manatee, Inc. Manuscript, Florida Department of State, Division of Historical Resources, Bureau of Historic Preservation, Tallahassee.

Baram, Uzi 2014 Many Histories by the Manatee Mineral Spring. Time Sifters Archaeological Society Newsletter. March

Baram, Uzi 2015 Including Maroon History on the Florida Gulf Coast: Archaeology and the Struggle for Freedom on the Early 19th-Century Manatee River. In The Limits of Tyranny: Archaeological Perspectives on the Struggle against New World Slavery, edited by James A. Delle, pages 213-240. The University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville.

Boyd, Mark F. 1937 Events at Prospect Bluff on the Apalachicola River, 1808–1818: An Introduction to Twelve Letters of Edmund Doyle, Trader. Florida Historical Quarterly 26(2):55–96.

Brown, Canter 1990 The “Sarrazota, or Runaway Negro Plantations”: Tampa Bay’s First Black Community, 1812–1821. Tampa Bay History 12(2):5–19.

Brown, Canter 2005 Tales of Angola: Free Blacks, Red Stick Creeks, and International Intrigue in Spanish Southwest Florida, 1812–1821. In Go Sound the Trumpet: Selections in Florida’s African American History, edited by D. H. Jackson, Jr. and C. Brown, Jr., pp. 5–21. University of Tampa Press, Tampa, FL.

Buffington, April J. 2009 Creek/Seminole Archaeology in the Apalachicola River Valley, Northwest Florida. Master’s Thesis. Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida, Tampa.

Carlson, Armanda and Robin Poynor, editors, 2015 Africa in Florida: Five Hundred Years of African Presence in the Sunshine State. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Cox, Dale 2016 Prospect Bluff. Accessed July 2016.

Cozzi, J. Coz 2007 “Looking For Angola”: Underwater Survey for 2007. Manuscript, Florida Department of State, Division of Historical Resources, Bureau of Historic Preservation, Tallahassee.

Gadsden, James 1937 The Defenses of the Floridas: A Report of Captain James Gadsden, Aide-de-Camp to General Andrew Jackson. Florida Historical Quarterly 15(4):242–248.

Giddings, Joshua R. 1863 The Florida Exiles and the War for Slavery, or the crimes committed by our government against the maroons, who fled from South Carolina and other slave states, seeking protection under Spanish laws. Follett, Foster, and Company, New York.

Griffin, John W. 1950 An Archaeologist at Ft. Gadsden. Florida Historical Quarterly 26(4):254–261.

Horne, Gerald 2012 Negro Comrades of the Crown: African Americans and the British Empire Fight the U.S. Before Emancipation. New York University Press, New York.

Howard, Rosalyn 2002 The Black Seminoles of the Bahamas. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Howard, Rosalyn 2006 The “Wild Indians of Andros Island”: Black Seminole Legacy in the Bahamas. Journal of Black Studies 37(2):275–298.

Howard, Rosalyn 2013 “Looking For Angola”: Public Anthropology and the Archaeological and Ethnohistorical Search for a Nineteenth Century Florida Maroon Community and its CircumCaribbean Connections. Florida Historical Quarterly 92(1):32-68.

Kly, Y. N. 2006 The Invisible War: African American Anti-Slavery Resistance from the Stono Rebellion through the Seminole Wars. Clarity Press, Atlanta.

Landers, Jane 1999 Black Society in Spanish Florida. University of Illinois Press, Urbana

Littlefield, Daniel F. Jr. 1977 Africans and Seminoles, From Removal to Emancipation. Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut.

Matthews, Janet Snyder 1983 Edge of Wilderness: A Settlement History of Manatee River and Sarasota Bay. Coastal Press, Sarasota, FL.

Millett, Nathaniel 2005 Britain’s 1814 Occupation of Pensacola and America’s Response: An Episode of the War of 1812 in the Southeastern Borderlands. Florida Historical Quarterly 84(2):229–255.

Millett, Nathaniel 2007 Defining Freedom in the Atlantic Borderlands of the Revolutionary Southeast. Early American Studies 5(2):367–394.

Millett, Nathaniel 2013 The Maroons of Prospect Bluff and Their Quest for Freedom in the Atlantic World. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Mock, Shirley. 2010. Dreaming with the Ancestors: Black Seminole Women in Texas and Mexico. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Morse, Jedidiah 1822 A Report to the Secretary of War of the United States, on Indian Affairs: Comprising a Narrative of a Tour Performed in the Summer of 1820, under a Commission from the President of the United States, for the Purpose of Ascertaining, for the Use of the Government, the Actual State of the Indian Tribes in Our Country. Converse, New Haven.

Mulroy, Kevin 2007 The Seminole Freedmen: A History. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Poe, Stephen R. 1963 Archaeological Excavations at Fort Gadsden, Florida. Florida State University, Department of Anthropology, Notes in Anthropology, No. 8. Tallahassee.

Porter, Kenneth W. 1996 The Black Seminoles: History of a Freedom-Seeking People, revised edition. Alcione M. Amos and Thomas P. Senter, editors. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Griffin, John W. 1950 An Archaeologist at Ft. Gadsden. Florida Historical Quarterly 26(4):254–261.
Riordan, Patrick 1996 Finding Freedom in Florida: Native Peoples, African Americans, and Colonists, 1670-1816. Florida Historical Quarterly 75(1):24-43.

Rosen, Deborah A. 2015 Border Law: The First Seminole War and American Nationhood. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Saunt, Claudio 1999 A New Order of Things: Property, Power, and the Transformation of the Creek Indians, 1733–1816. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY.

Twyman, Bruce E. 1999 The Black Seminole Legacy and North American Politics, 1693–1845. Howard University Press, Washington, DC.

United States Topographic Bureau 1818 Plan of Fort Gadsden. Drawer 128, Sheet 9, Engineering Department, U.S. Topographic Bureau, Washington, DC. Manuscript, National Archives, Washington, DC.

Vignoles, Charles Blacker 1824 Observations upon the Floridas. E. Bliss & E. White, New York.

Weik, Terrance 1997 The Archaeology of Maroon Societies in the Americas: Resistance, Cultural Continuity, and Transformationin the African Diaspora. Historical Archaeology 31(2):81–92.

Weik, Terrance 2005 Freedom Fighters on the Florida Frontier. In Unlocking the Past: Celebrating Historical Archaeology in North America, Lu Ann De Cunzo and John Jameson, editors, pp. 36–44. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Weik, Terrance 2012 The Archaeology of Antislavery Resistance. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Weisman, Brent 2009 The Plantation System of the Florida Seminole Indians and Black Seminoles during the Colonial Period. In Florida’s Working-Class Past: Current Perspectives on Labor, Race, and Gender from Spanish Florida to the New Immigration, edited by Robert Cassanello and Melanie Shell-Weiss, pp. 136–149. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Williams, John Lee 1837 The Territory of Florida, or Sketches of the Topography, Civil and Natural History of the Country, the Climate, and the Indian Tribes from the First Discovery to the Present Time, with a Map, Views, &c. A. T. Goodrich, New York, NY. Reprinted 1962 by University of Florida Press, Gainesville.

Wright, J. Leitch 1986 Creeks and Seminoles. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.

Young, Hugh 1818 Sketch of the Indian & Negro Towns on the Suwaney River. Manuscript, RG77:L 247-94, National Archives, Washington, DC.
Uzi Baram,
Aug 10, 2016, 7:09 AM